While working in the 1700's I stumbled across some conflicting evidence about the residence of my target person: Ephraim Rutledge.


A search on two popular sites gave me an index entry of Misc Run Hundred for the 1790 Census. Here is the image from one of the sites.


I have not heard of Misc Run Hundred, so I am skeptical. A Hundred was a section of the county, similar to modern townships. The term Hundred comes from England and means the area needed to support one hundred families or to raise one hundred men for a militia.


A look at the actual record shows me images of the actual pages of the census. Here is an image of the part of page 72 showing Ephraim's Entry.

There is no title or header on the page, so I go back a few pages to see if I can find more information.

The title is on page 67. It clearly says "The Enumeration of Mine Run Hundred". At least it's clear to those of us who spend most days buried in old musty documents. I do miss the smell of the documents. Page 67 is only one check, and being the OCD person that I am - or to put it more 'professionally" - realizing the need to conduct reasonably exhaustive research, I go forward to check for any other names.


On the very first page of this section, I found the image below. I can see why the indexer wrote "Misc' instead of "Mine".

I am sure you are wondering: " But did she check the last pages, too?" Of course, I did! The list just ended. There was no paragraph attesting to the ending.


So, Ephraim lived in Mine Run Hundred. Or did he?


I happened upon a 1783 Tax List (MSA S 1437) - typed, so at best a transcript. Ephraim was listed in Mine Run Hundred on Pocock's Lot. Good.


I searched the Maryland State Archives and found the original 1783 lists in a collection: MSA-s1161_scm871-0181. Originals! Yes! Originals - a Genealogist's Dream! I quickly turned to the Mine Run Hundred Census... scrolled down to the "R" entries - Ephraim is not listed! In fact, NO Rutledge is listed. They should be right in the middle of the page. I check every page of Mine Run Hundred (it's that OCD/reasonably exhaustive search gene again). NADA. Not on the valuation pages, not on the Poll tax list.


So, that OCD kicked in again. I started checking the adjoining Hundreds and there he was! Ephraim was listed in the North Hundred, which is directly west of Mine Run Hundred. This list says he is on Pocock's Lot. So does the Mine Run Hundred entry above. Hmmm....


Was Pocock's lot in Mine Run or North Hundred? I have several maps that were put together detailing a lot of the landowners during this time period. So, I pull the maps and look for Pocock's Lot. The maps are not definitive. At least one is not showing the land anywhere near where the others are.


Conclusion? In 1783 and 1790 Ephraim lived on Pocock's Lot. The property may have straddled the line between Mine Run and North Hundreds. Depending on the actual location of the home, I cannot say with certainty which Hundred he lived in. An attempt to locate the home and/or map the property is in order. For now, confirming how long he owned the land and following him, his neighbors, or the future owners forward on succeeding tax lists and censuses will add evidence to the land's location. A check for any boundary changes of the Hundreds is also in order.


It's important to go to originals when you can find them. Always consult the State Archives, University Archives, libraries, Historical Societies, and Museums to see what they hold. It's not always easy to locate records in Archives. Ask the Archivists for help. They always know more than you ever will about their holdings.







NOTE: All names have been changed.


Bob's DNA test had several close cousin matches that he could not figure out. Working through the matches and putting people together in time and place, I was able to identify a previously unknown grandmother - Gramma New.


The cookies Bob loved were baked by his 'paper trail' grandmother - Gramma Gee. He never knew genetic Gramma New. Gramma New was part of a large family, so Bob has many New half cousins.


Emotionally, this was difficult. Bob's Gee family was Quaker and well documented. The family had a strong 'Gee' identity. There was no church record about this dalliance.


Finding the relationship was difficult, but once found, the autosomal matches fit together nicely. Most researchers would stop here. But I asked Bob to do a Y-DNA test.


Unlike many early families, the Gee family was small. Many members were childless, or had just one or two children. Bob had no autosomal DNA matches in this line, but because my paper research had documented the small family, I was not surprised. All his close family matches were linked to known lines, there were no more mystery matches. Men in the Gee family tend to look alike. Bob looks like his father, who mirrored his father. Bob's sons are easily identified, they look like Bob.


Nevertheless, a Y-DNA test seemed like a good idea. He wanted to prove his surname. When his Y test came back, it was gut wrenching. His well established and documented Gee surname was not his. He was a New.


His New grandmother, with some of her siblings, had moved into the area from a distant state. They appeared to come for work. There was no indication she had other family in the area. The new cousins definitely came from one couple, who remained in the original state. The New female was definitely the link to Bob.


Only men have a Y chromosome. There was a New male in his line. The close Y-DNA matches descend from a New family living in the area the grandmother moved from. Unfortunately, the research is not very well documented.


I am documenting the original state New family now. Once the present day families are well documented, I'll move the New family back in time, watching for a possible connection in place or time. I suspect the connection may not be in America.


Y-DNA matches can connect many hundreds of years in the past, but because the families all lived in the same area, we are hoping I can make a connection, or at least develop a possible theory.


Bob is a Gee. His father was a Gee and his grandfather was a Gee. He is a Gee and all that he knows of his family is 'correct'. He is adjusting to this discovery. We are both intrigued with the idea that the New family shows up twice - a near time event captured by an autosomal DNA test and a distant event that was captured only by Y testing.

This article was written in December of 2018..


Ancestry’s marketing has fueled a lot of interest in DNA tests. People who are thinking about purchasing a test often ask, “Which test should I take?”. The most common answer from the ‘experts’ is to test at Ancestry. Two reasons are often given – They have the largest database and they do not accept uploads from other companies.


Is this the best advice? Just what do people who purchase a DNA test at Ancestry get for their $99? I let my subscription lapse, so I could see for myself. Each DNA test requires a free guest account. Ancestry offers subscriptions to their research database, but a subscription is not required to process a DNA test. To Ancestry’s credit, the DNA test activation page clearly states that the tester will receive Ethnicity results and be able to communicate with matches. I think those who have Ancestry subscriptions overlook this limited use.


I logged into my guest account to see my DNA results. The results surprised me. The main or landing page looks the same as when I had a subscription. When I click on my DNA Matches the page looks the same.


Clicking on “View Match” takes me to the first unexpected change!

The screen says “Pedigree and Surnames”, but I see a page trying to get me to subscribe. I do not see a pedigree or list of surnames. I am able to send the match a message from this screen. But without any information on surnames or a family tree to look at, it is difficult to guess how we may be related.


Clicking on the Shared Matches tab takes me to the same screen I see with a subscription. When I click on a match’s name, I am taken to a page offering me a subscription.

Clicking on the Maps and Locations tab takes me to the subscription sales page, instead of the Map.


Compare shows me an ethnicity comparison and shared matches. This is the same with or without a subscription, however, without a subscription, I see the subscription sales page when I click on a match.

Is recommending Ancestry DNA testing the best advice? When a person asks, “Which DNA test should I buy?” my answer just got more complicated. First, why do you want to test? If you only care about ethnicity and have no interest in connecting with your matches, then My Heritage, Ancestry, Living DNA and others all have comparable Ethnicity information. The size of the testing database does not appear to skew the results for the casual user. Your results may vary slightly between companies, that is to be expected.


Are you interested in connecting with cousins, verifying your records-based research or connecting with other researchers on your lines? Then consider Ancestry, but factor in the cost of a subscription or hiring a professional. Also consider My Heritage and Family Tree DNA who both allow you to create a tree, see your matches tree, and correspond with matches without a subscription.


Ancestry does have the largest database of DNA testers, but to access any features beyond Ethnicity testing, you must subscribe. If you ‘might’ consider subscribing to Ancestry in the future, then I suggest you test at Ancestry (simply because they do not allow you to upload your file from another company). If you test at Ancestry, immediately download your raw data file and upload it to one or more of the other companies who do provide access to your matches trees without a subscription and connect with your matches there. Some of these companies do charge a small fee to upload. These companies also have chromosome browsers, a tool Ancestry has refused to make available to their customers.


GEDMatch is a third-party company that does not offer DNA testing. They do allow you to connect with others who have tested with a variety of companies, allow trees via GEDCOMS and Wikitree, and have excellent tools as your research advances. Uploading to GEDMatch is free.

Ancestry is an answer, it may not be the ‘best’ answer. Ancestry’s lack of access to the matches pedigree tree and other tools available from their competitors negates their database size in my opinion.


I wanted to see just what a person is offered who purchases a DNA test from Ancestry. A close relative agreed to test so I could document what a new person sees.


Ancestry very clearly offers Ethnicity results and the ability to communicate with your matches. When she activated her test, she was encouraged to build a tree. Search results were presented. I chose to go to Find A Grave first and was successful in adding this information to her tree.


Next, I chose a record I knew was not available without a subscription. When I clicked on the ‘Review’ button, I was taken to a subscription sales page. So, it appears new DNA testers can build a tree and attach sources that are free, but a subscription is required for other records.


Ancestry does offer a free 14-day membership, but frankly, the constant sales pages as I navigate through the site was a real turn off. It felt very much like the salesperson who follows you around a store.


Many researchers are frustrated when a new match appears with little information. Ancestry may have the largest DNA testing database, but be prepared to purchase a subscription.